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BACKGROUND: To devise treatment strategies for neonatal infections, the population-level incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogens must be defined. METHODS: Surveillance for suspected neonatal sepsis was conducted in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, from February 2004 through November 2006. Community health workers assessed neonates on postnatal days 0, 2, 5, and 8 and referred sick neonates to a hospital, where blood was collected for culture from neonates with suspected sepsis. We estimated the incidence and pattern of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia and determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile of pathogens. RESULTS: The incidence rate of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia was 3.0 per 1000 person-neonatal periods. Among the 30 pathogens identified, the most common was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 10); half of all isolates were gram positive. Nine were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin or to ceftiaxone, and 13 were resistant to cotrimoxazole. CONCLUSION: S. aureus was the most common pathogen to cause community-acquired neonatal bacteremia. Nearly 40% of infections were identified on days 0-3, emphasizing the need to address maternal and environmental sources of infection. The combination of parenteral procaine benzyl penicillin and an aminoglycoside is recommended for the first-line treatment of serious community-acquired neonatal infections in rural Bangladesh, which has a moderate level of neonatal mortality. Additional population-based data are needed to further guide national and global strategies.

Original publication

DOI

10.1086/605473

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Infect Dis

Publication Date

15/09/2009

Volume

200

Pages

906 - 915

Keywords

Anti-Bacterial Agents, Bacteremia, Bacteria, Bangladesh, Community-Acquired Infections, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Female, Hospitalization, Humans, Incidence, Infant, Newborn, Male, Staphylococcus aureus