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The quest for new antimalarial drugs, especially those with novel modes of action, is essential in the face of emerging drug-resistant parasites. Here we describe a new chemical class of molecules, pyrazoleamides, with potent activity against human malaria parasites and showing remarkably rapid parasite clearance in an in vivo model. Investigations involving pyrazoleamide-resistant parasites, whole-genome sequencing and gene transfers reveal that mutations in two proteins, a calcium-dependent protein kinase (PfCDPK5) and a P-type cation-ATPase (PfATP4), are necessary to impart full resistance to these compounds. A pyrazoleamide compound causes a rapid disruption of Na(+) regulation in blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Similar effect on Na(+) homeostasis was recently reported for spiroindolones, which are antimalarials of a chemical class quite distinct from pyrazoleamides. Our results reveal that disruption of Na(+) homeostasis in malaria parasites is a promising mode of antimalarial action mediated by at least two distinct chemical classes.

Original publication

DOI

10.1038/ncomms6521

Type

Journal article

Journal

Nat Commun

Publication Date

25/11/2014

Volume

5

Keywords

Adenosine Triphosphatases, Amides, Antimalarials, Benzimidazoles, Erythrocytes, Female, Homeostasis, Humans, Malaria, Male, Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium falciparum, Protein Kinases, Protozoan Proteins, Pyrazoles, Sodium