Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Hedgehog (Hh) morphogens play fundamental roles during embryogenesis and adulthood, in health and disease. Multiple cell surface receptors regulate the Hh signaling pathway. Among these, the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of proteoglycans shape Hh gradients and signal transduction. We have determined crystal structures of Sonic Hh complexes with two GAGs, heparin and chondroitin sulfate. The interaction determinants, confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and binding studies, reveal a previously not identified Hh site for GAG binding, common to all Hh proteins. The majority of Hh residues forming this GAG-binding site have been previously implicated in developmental diseases. Crystal packing analysis, combined with analytical ultracentrifugation of Sonic Hh-GAG complexes, suggests a potential mechanism for GAG-dependent Hh multimerization. Taken together, these results provide a direct mechanistic explanation of the observed correlation between disease and impaired Hh gradient formation. Moreover, GAG binding partially overlaps with the site of Hh interactions with an array of protein partners including Patched, hedgehog interacting protein, and the interference hedgehog protein family, suggesting a unique mechanism of Hh signaling modulation.

Original publication

DOI

10.1073/pnas.1310097110

Type

Journal article

Journal

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Publication Date

08/10/2013

Volume

110

Pages

16420 - 16425

Keywords

Chromatography, Affinity, Escherichia coli, Glycosaminoglycans, Hedgehog Proteins, Humans, Models, Molecular, Mutagenesis, Site-Directed, Polymerization, Protein Conformation, Proteoglycans, Signal Transduction, Ultracentrifugation