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We used microarrays and transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood to investigate the host response of 29 individuals who contracted typhoid fever in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. Samples were taken over a nine month period encompassing acute disease, convalescence, and recovery. We found that typhoid fever induced a distinct and highly reproducible signature in the peripheral blood that changed during treatment and convalescence, returning in the majority of cases to the "normal" profile as measured in healthy uninfected controls. Unexpectedly, there was a strong, distinct signature of convalescence present at day 9 after infection that remained virtually unchanged one month after acute infection and in some cases persisted as long as nine months despite a complete clinical recovery in all patients. Patients who retain the convalescent signature may be genetically or temporarily incapable of developing an effective immune response and may be more susceptible to reinfection, relapse, or the establishment of a carrier state.

Original publication

DOI

10.1073/pnas.0912386106

Type

Journal article

Journal

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Publication Date

29/12/2009

Volume

106

Pages

22433 - 22438

Keywords

Acute Disease, Case-Control Studies, Convalescence, Gene Expression Profiling, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Salmonella typhi, Time Factors, Typhoid Fever, Vietnam