Enhanced CD8+ T cell immune responses and protection elicited against Plasmodium berghei malaria by prime boost immunization regimens using a novel attenuated fowlpox virus.
Anderson RJ., Hannan CM., Gilbert SC., Laidlaw SM., Sheu EG., Korten S., Sinden R., Butcher GA., Skinner MA., Hill AVS.
Sterile immunity can be provided against the pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria by IFN-gamma-secreting CD8(+) T cells that recognize parasite-infected hepatocytes. In this study, we have investigated the use of attenuated fowlpox virus (FPV) strains as recombinant vaccine vectors for eliciting CD8(+) T cells against Plasmodium berghei. The gene encoding the P. berghei circumsporozoite (PbCS) protein was inserted into an FPV vaccine strain licensed for use in chickens, Webster's FPV, and the novel FPV vaccine strain FP9 by homologous recombination. The novel FP9 strain proved more potent as a vaccine for eliciting CD8(+) T cell responses against the PbCS Ag. Sequential immunization with rFP9 and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Anakara (MVA) encoding the PbCS protein, administered by clinically acceptable routes, elicited potent CD8(+) T cell responses against the PbCS protein. This immunization regimen elicited substantial protection against a stringent liver-stage challenge with P. berghei and was more immunogenic and protective than DNA/MVA prime/boost immunization. However, further improvement was not achieved by sequential (triple) immunization with a DNA vaccine, FP9, and MVA.